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The problem of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) for critically ill patients has remained relevant for a long time. Despite numerous studies conducted over the past 10 years, many issues remain unresolved in the treatment of patients with severe forms of IAH. Doctors of emergency care face them especially often. Recommendations and protocols for the examination and treatment of patients with IAH are beeing constantly changed and corrected as new data become available. To systematize existing information on IAH diagnosis and intensive therapy, this literature review was created. The data of publications, meta-analyzes, clinical recommendations for the last 10 years are analyzed. The search was conducted in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka, Russian Science Citation Index. The review covers the issues of intra-abdominal pressure definition and diagnosis, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The algorithm and methods for IAH treatment are examined and analyzed: mechanical gastrointestinal intubation, evacuation of bulk fluid clusters, muscle relaxation, prolonged epidural anesthesia, features of infusion therapy and mechanical ventilation. The variants of surgical tactics are considered, since it is surgical decompression that remains to date the only effective way to resolve IAH and ACS treatment. The critical value of intra-abdominal pressure indicating the absolute need for surgical abdominal decompression, depends on the presence/absence of organ dysfunction. Intra-abdominal hypertension combined with dysfunction of at least one organ is considered to be an absolute indication for surgical abdominal decompression with the subsequent use of temporary closure of the abdominal cavity, if necessary. Management of patients with elevated intra-abdominal pressure according to the adopted protocol allows to avoid the development of ACS and fatal complications.

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