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Introduction. Traction and convergence of atreseal ends of the esophagus with subsequent anastomosis is the most common technique for treating newborns with the fistulous form of esophagus atresia. The performed literature analysis did not reveal any researches aiming to study the correlation between a postoperative histological picture and diastasis length between atresial esophageal ends. Purpose. To assess the potential for modeling esophageal surgeries with biological models; to study and analyze the histological picture of operated esophagus and its correlation with the diastasis distance between atresial ends. Material and methods. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 5 in each group). Rats from Group 1 had a standard surgery with the end-to-end esophageal anastomosis and artificially created diastasis of 1.0 cm by esophageal segment resection. Rats from Group 2 had a similar surgery but without any esophageal segment resection; so, the anastomosis in them was put without diastasis and significant tension of esophageal ends. Rats from Group 3 did not have any surgery; they were controls. The experimental rats were monitored daily for seven postoperative days. Results. There was no any significant macroscopic difference in the esophagus length in traction, nontraction and control groups. However, microscopic examination revealed that mucous and muscular membranes thickness in the esophagus, as a rule, was slightly thinner in the traction group. Despite the muscle layer thinning, hypertrophy of muscle fibers, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with some eosinophilic leukocytes as well as signs of perifocal epitheliotropism were noted.

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