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Introduction. Testicular torsion is an emergency condition requiring emergency medical care. Polymorphism of symptoms in testicular torsion makes diagnostics not easy and leads to late treatment what can results in irreversible damages to the testicle. Early diagnostics is a key point to organ preservation. Material and methods. The authors describe two clinical cases of testicular torsion in adolescents with errors in diagnostics. Clinical, laboratory findings and instrumental examination (MRI, ultrasound) were used for diagnostics. Results. A diagnostic error resulted in orchectomy which was made to one patient. In the other patient - despite a diagnostic error- testiclular detorsion and urgent surgical intervention resulted in patient’s complete recovery. Discussion. These examples illustrate how important is to carefully study the patient’s case-history - onset and nature of pain, associated vegetative symptoms - nausea and vomiting - which are not characteristic for other acute testicular diseases. Conventional tactics of urgent surgical intervention for all acute testicular diseases in children does not insure against diagnostic errors in case of testicular torsion with atypical symptoms. Ultrasound examination is of irreplaceable value, but one cannot be guided only by its findings in excluding testicular torsion. Conclusion. Any of the symptoms of testicular torsion - whether it is acute onset or severe pain, or a combination with vomiting, or severe pain on palpation, or ultrasound findings - is a reason to suspect testicular torsion and, it is an absolute indication for urgent surgery. The protocol for diagnostics and treatment of acute testicular diseases developed by us includes these diagnostic peculiarities and allows to choose an effective treatment modality.

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