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HYPOGLOSSIA: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TWO CASES


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Abstract

Introduction. Aglossia / hypoglossia is a rare condition combined with underdeveled lower jaw, lack of mandibular incisors and various degrees of limb anomalies. In domestic and foreign literature, one can find only few such observations in pediatric and adult populations. This malformation is met in the syndrome of limb and oromandibular hypogynesia or aglossia-adactylia syndrome. The incidence of aglossia / hypoglossia is very low (1 / 175,000-1 / 1,000,000 live births, ) and in most cases it is represented by hypoglosia, and not true aglossia. The isolated aglossia without limb malformations is an even more rare condition. The etiology of aglossia / hypoglosia is unknown, since all known cases are sporadic and by present moment no more than 100 observations have been published. Material and methods. In 2015, a girl (1 year 10 mon old ) and a 3- year old boy were examined in hospital and outpatiently because of complaints for the reduction of lower jaw. The children were examined by an orthodontist; additional examinations were prescribed to the girl because of revealed comorbidities. Results. The girl also had vertebrae malformation. Such a pathological combination had not been seen previously in the available literature. The second child was a boy of 3 y.o.; his parents decided to consult an orthodontist for correcting the bite. In both cases, children were well adapted, although there were some deficiencies in verbal activity and difficulties in feeding; after speech therapy and spoon-feeding trainings these problems were solved. Conclusion. Even with a significant degree of tongue underdevelopment, there are practically no functional limitations in patients with aglossia-adactyl syndrome, which is important for determining prognosis as well as for consulting patients and their parents and for making decision about the need for corrective surgery.


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