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APPENDICULAR PERITONITIS IN CHILDREN: AN EFFICIENT SURGICAL APPROACH AND INTENSIVE CARE


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Abstract

Introduction. Currently, there is no any unified approach to the treatment of complicated forms of acute appendicitis in children. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the local Protocol for diagnostics and treatment of appendicular peritonitis (AP) in children. Material and methods. 149 children with AP, aged 2 - 17 (11 ± 3.5 ), were included into the study. All of them were treated at the Clinical and Research Institute Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Trauma (CRIEPST) in 2015-2018. In the gender structure, boys (104; 69.8%) prevailed over girls (45; 30.2%). The following parameters were evaluated: AP structure, surgical tactics, postoperative course (incidence of postoperative intestinal failure syndrome (IFS), postoperative complications, length of hospital stay). A tactics for surgical treatment and volume of intensive care in the postoperative period were defined depending on AP severity and according to the local Protocol. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 145 (97.3%) patients. There were no intraoperative complications and conversions in the studied group. In case of periappendiular abscess (PA) 3 (2.7%), patients had puncture and abscess drainage under ultrasound control. Results. While analyzing the AP structure by forms , the following picture was shown: free and abscessed forms were approximately equal - 72 (48.3%) and 77 (51.7%), respectively (p > 0.05). Diffuse peritonitis - 31.5%; generalized - 16.8%; combined - 17.4%; periappendicular abscess (PA) stage 1-14.8%; PA 2-16.8%; PA 3-2.7%. Postoperative complications - 4 (2.7%): postoperative abdominal abscesses - 3 (2.0%); early adhesive intestinal obstruction - 1 (0.7%). In postoperative abscesses, puncture and drainage were performed under ultrasound control; in early adhesive intestinal obstruction - laparoscopic adhesiolysis. All the children recovered. Length of intensive care was 2.9 ± 1.8 days; hospitalization - 12.0 ± 5.2 days. Conclusion. The local Protocol developed by the researchers helps to define a surgical tactics and volume of intensive care in the postoperative period. Laparoscopic surgery, in the vast majority of cases, is an optimal and effective technique for AP surgical treatment in children. Contraindications to laparoscopic surgery are PA 3 and total abscessing peritonitis.


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