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EFFECTIVENESS OF TENDON-MUSCLE PLASTY OF THE KNEE JOINT IN PATIENTS HAVING SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY WITH FLEXION CONTRACTURES OF KNEE JOINTS


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Abstract

Introduction. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the main cause of childhood neurological disability in the world. Due to the fact that the prevalence of knee contractures in children with cerebral palsy occupies the 3rd place in the structure of orthopedic pathology of the lower extremities, this topic is least covered in the scientific periodicals. Material and methods. Findings from 40 patients of the main group, aged 7-12 and having cerebral palsy (CP), were studied retrospectively. They had knee flexion contractures with patella alta. Findings of goniometry and of Gillette FAQ were analyzed before and after surgery. The Spearman coefficient was used for the correlation analysis of goniometry parameters and surgical intervention effectiveness before surgery. 35 patients having no bilateral CP damage and other diseases leading to lower limb deformities were included into the reference group. X-ray examination and goniometry assessment of a healthy limb were made in patient’s lying position on his back with passive extension; plus goniometry in a standing position with shin active extension. Results. The median of deformation angles before and after surgery was 20° and 5°, respectively (p <0.05). Correction volume was 80%. The median of scores by the Gillette increased from 2 to 3 (p <0.05) after surgery. Assessment of the correlation between preoperative goniometry values and treatment efficacy values showed a significant moderate feedback (p <0.05). Conclusion. The stronger the deformity before surgery, the less chance for developing the standing-up function. The best result can be achieved when deformity is 10-25°. Normal values of passive extension by goniometry in a healthy knee for children aged 7-12 in a lying position are 6 ° hyper-extension (genu recurvatum) (± 2 °) and 12 ° hyper-extension (±3°) of a knee joint by lateral X-ray. Normal active extension in children aged 7-12 in a standing position is 3° hyper-extension (±2°). Smaller values of the tibiofemoral angle by goniometry in a standing position and maximun values for passive extension by X-ray and goniometry assessment may serve as clinical and radiological criteria of knee flexion contracture.


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