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ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF HEMATOGENOUS PATELLA OSTEOMYELITIS IN A 12-YEAR OLD CHILD


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Abstract

Introduction. A rare disease in pediatric population - acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the patella - is presented in the article by the authors. Diagnostic approaches and specificity in choosing a curative modality are described as well. A purulent focus in the patella was treated arthroscopically. Satisfactory outcomes in the shortest possible period were achieved due to the combined curative modality: antibiotic therapy, flow-lavage drainage of the joint and early rehabilitative measures. Purpose. To demonstrate potentials of modern diagnostic and endosurgical techniques for treating acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the patella of rare location. Material and methods. In February 2017, a 12-year-old boy with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the right patella was examined and treated at the department of purulent surgery of the Research Institute of Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Trauma (CRIEPST). A complex of diagnostic techniques included laboratory (clinical analysis of blood and urine, biochemical blood test) and instrumental (ultrasound diagnostics of knee joints, computed tomography) examinations. Conservative treatment included antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and symptomatic therapy . Surgical debridement of the osteomyelitis focus in the knee joint was made arthroscopically. Results. Given the obtained data, the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the right patella was put. Location of the process, purulent effusion in the joint cavity and damaged articular surface of the patella urged surgeons to decide on the endosurgical treatment: arthroscopic cleansing of the purulent-necrotic focus of the patella and sanitation of the knee joint cavity. In the postoperative period, the child had medicamentous therapy, apparatus therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation therapy. The right lower limb was immobilized with a posterior plaster cast for 7 days. The joint was washed with physiological saline solution for 5 days, after which the drainage was left for passive aspiration for another two days. Standing-up position with crutches and emphasis on the low legs were achieved on the 7th postoperative day. On the 14th postoperative day, the child was discharged home in a satisfactory state. Catamnestic examination 4 months later revealed that the right knee joint was not externally changed, movements in the joint were in full range. Ultrasound examination did not reveal any pathology either. MRI examination revealed an area with reparative signs at the site of operated purulent focus which looked like a partial replacement of the bone defect. Conclusions. The arthroscopy is a minimally invasive and effective technique for surgical treatment of intra-articular purulent foci in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the patella.


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