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Light pollution as the hygienic problem


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Abstract

Mass introduction of lighting devices according to the concept of "maximum coverage area" and multistoried buildings of cities gave rise to light pollution, which became a problem for astronomers, ecologists and hygienists. Analysis of modern lighting devices and installations has shown that about 30-45% of the luminous flux becomes the light pollution. Night lighting of cities causes both direct and indirect damage to the environment, leads to unnecessary energy wastes. So in the USA due to excessive light there is wasted about 2 million barrels of oil per day. Light pollution affects the human hormonal system, causing various health disorders, such as insomnia and depression as a consequence. The light pollution through the ganglion cells of the retina affects the synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland (epiphysis) and contributes to its calcification, which greatly affects the human psyche. At present, many countries have been paying much state attention to this problem via delivery of national documents and change of the concept of the designing of lighting devices and installations. The essence of this concept - to shine with a preset quality of light only in the right place at the specified time interval. This reduces the light pollution, saves energy and increases the environmental safety of lighting. There is presented an example of a technical solution to reduce the light pollution in the application of the light panel in the form of the gradient of the light guide generator project development.


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