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CHEMICAL-ANALYTICAL STUDIES FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL SAFETY OF SUBSTANCES MIGRING IN WATER ENVIRONMENTS WITH WASTE OF OIL-EXCHANGING INDUSTRY


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Abstract

The oil industry, transporting industry and processing industry is the most hazardous branches of the national economy as an increase of their production inevitably leads to an increase in volumes of petroleum pollution and waste. This is accompanied by an increase in environmental threats, a decrease in the area of economic lands, a decrease of soil fertility and a degradation of human health. The large-scale exploitation of subsoil and the increase in volumes of oil refining contributes to the increased risk of an environmental pollution, beginning from the stage of oil exploration and production and ending with the use of oil products. The pollution of environment takes place with the implementation of drilling processes and preparation of wells for operation. The drilling processes are accompanied by dispersed rock destruction, the formation of drill cuttings and removing it with washing liquid. The formation of significant quantities of oily wastes decreases the economic efficiency of enterprises in oil and gas industry due to the need of alienation of the territory of those enterprises for the oily waste storages, the increase of environmental payments for waste storage and pollutant emissions. According to Federal law “On production and consumption wastes”, every enterprise must develop “passports of hazardous waste”. The study of the chemical composition of a wide range of organic substances, metals and elements migrating to aquatic environments by modern highly sensitive methods of physical and chemical analysis provides the possibility to identify early unknown and unaccounted matters in oily wastes, which are capable of entering environmental water bodies. There were identified up to 100 organic compounds among substances that migrate to aquatic environments. The spectrum of detected organic substances is presented by aromatic, polycyclic aromatic, naphthenoaromatic hydrocarbons, biphenyls and oxygen-containing compounds, including alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, complex ethers, furans, quinones and nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds. The analysis of the inorganic component of oily wastes that migrate to aquatic environments showed that among 70 metals and elements studied the largest mass fraction was in alkaline-earth metals (< 82%) and alkali metals (< 33%). There was established the presence of sulfur (< 1%), iron (< 0,25%) and heavy metals: copper and tin (0.002% in total). The studies of the anion composition of oily wastes’ water extracts established the presence of chlorine, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The concentration of sulfate ion was below the method’s sensitivity level.


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