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The approach to the regulation of mercury according to the content of its termoforms in soils and bed loads


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Abstract

The article contains the results of the ecological and hygienic diagnostics of conditions of lands of areas of different sizes and varying degrees of urbanization, located in different agro-climatic conditions of European Russia (the southern Astrakhan region, he city of Moscow). Assessments of the state of territories use a new approach to rationing of Hg according to quantitative ratios of the content of its thermoforms in soils, grounds and alluvium (in litho substrate). The method of diagnostics is based on known properties of Hg forms: their geochemical activity (migration mobility) and toxicity decline along with the increment of the Hg temperature threshold of the release in the process of continuous warming up of the litho substrate sample (up to 1100°C). Thermoforms are not tied to specific minerals or chemicals and are conditionally designated as FR (Free: <180°C), CL (Chloride: 180-250°C), FS and CS (physically and chemically sorbed: 250-400°C), SU (Sulfide: 400-500°C) IS (isomorphic: >500°C) Hg forms. Among forms, also conditionally according to complexes of low, medium and high temperature variations(FR + CL, FS + CS and SU + IZ, respectively, there are selected groups of «mobile», «sustainable» and «inert» forms. For technogenic Hg there is characterized the predominance in the sample of «mobile» and to lesser extent degree - «stable» thermoforms. The more intensive this predominance is, the higher is environmental hazard. The natural accumulation is diagnosed by the presence and prevalence of the sum of moderate - and high-temperature inert forms of Hg. According to the ratios of Hg content, its forms and groups, as well as the density of correlationships between them, 6 indices of the conditions of soils and alluvium were developed by ourselves.Main coefficients out of indices on informativeness of results of diagnostics are the following factors: Endogenous input, Geochemical activity and Hg mobility. With regard to the combination of variability in indices, the total amount of Hg, the genesis and intensity of its accumulation (natural or anthropogenic), there were also developed ranking scales of the ecological and hygienic condition of the land areas and surface water bodies. As a result, on the base of such approach to the regulation of Hg the information value of assessments of mercury contamination of land significantly increased. At the objects of assessments there were identified following areas: foci of the manifestation of Hg hypolimnetic emanations on the landscape surface - dispersion halos in the areas of the Earth crust fracture (the dome of the Astrakhan gas condensate field); environmentally dangerous (sometimes even at a low total content of Hg) parts of cities, towns, their districts, as well as beds of watercourses and water reservoirs bottom (the Volga river valley and delta, the Lefortovo quarter in Moscow). There was also diagnosed the threshold of the background distribution of gross Hg content detected = 0.2-0.3 mg/kg. Its magnitude is consistent with domestic and abroad safe levels of Hg accumulation in soils = 0.3-0.4 mg/kg. The approach provides the differentiation of the environmental hazard lands. Technology of the approach can be used in the development of normative Document for the diagnosis of environmental and sanitary condition of territories in the system of Classifications of hazard of waste, in decontamination of territories, water areas and land zoning according to the criteria of natural or anthropogenic Hg accumulation.


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