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Biochemical protective mechanisms in the accumulation of heavy metals in organisms


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Abstract

At present due to the environmental contamination by heavy metals there is a great interest to investigate the processes of their both accumulation in plants and toxic effect on biochemical indices. Therefore the objective of this research was the analysis of the alteration of the system of antioxidant protection ofplants in conditions of soil contamination by copper and zinc. Research object were germinants of oat in amount of300 plants in each variant of the experiment. For the performance of the experiment, the sand was equally contaminated by sulfates of Cu and Zn in concentration of 2 MPC on its gross content in soil. The experiment lastedfor 2 weeks. For the implementation of the objective of research there was analyzed the contentof both Cu and Zn in plants exposed to soil contamination. Additionally there was performed an analysis of as the content of lipids peroxidation products, phenols and flavonoids; as well the activity ofperoxidase, catalase and photosynthetic system. Under the soil contamination by copper and zinc corresponding to 2 MPC the accumulation of heavy metals was established to be happening in plants. If compared copper accumulation was higher than zinc accumulation that can be explained by the high migration capability of zinc. Under combined impact of two metals there was revealed their antagonistic interaction. There was established an elevated content of lipids peroxidation products in cells as a sequence of the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. As a result of the elevation of the content of lipids peroxidation products there was revealed a raised activity ofphotosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant system (carotenoids, catalase and peroxidase) in the cell. The decrease of the content ofphenols and flavonoids is related with the usage of this system of antioxidant protection for the neutralization of lipids peroxidation processes.


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