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SILICON: ITS BIOLOGICAL IMPACT UNDER DIETARY INTAKE AND HYGIENIC STANDARDIZATION OF ITS CONTENT IN DRINKING WATER. A REVIEW


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Abstract

By the prevalence in the earth’s crust, silicon occupies the second place after oxygen. In different quantities silicon always presents in water and food products.The average daily dietary intake of silicon in Western world is about 20-50 mg/day. The biological role of silicon in human organism is still not clear, but it assumed to be necessary for processes of bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, it has a positive effect on the state of skin, hair, and nails, contributes to the prevention of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease. A number of scientific research is devoted to biological effects of silicon in animals and human subjects under intake with food and water, and substantiation of silicon (maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) in drinking water. In Chuvashia there was investigated the regional (geographical) pathology, which may be related with an increased silicon intake in association with the sharp imbalances of trace and macro elements in drinking water. Some measures were implemented to identify the possible role of silicon in etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report summarized materials for the experimental evaluation of the toxicity and harmless levels of silicon intake with food and water in animals. A series of studies was executed to simulate the development of silicon urolithiasis and for the elucidation of the role of macro- and microelements accompanying the intake of silicon into the body in stone formation. There are studied potential therapeutic effects of water soluble silicon compounds on human health. The standards of silicon in drinking water are regulated only in Russia and Australia. At the same time in our country there were formed two opposing points of view in relation to the hygienic standardization of silicon. The first is one - MAC of silicon in drinking water needs to be cancelled, the second - MAC of silicon in the water needs to be tightened. To resolve the contradictions it is advisable to use both the experience of harmonization of standards with international requirements, and the principle of silicon regional standardization, taking into consideration the biogeochemical characteristics of geographic areas. When searching the literature databases PubMed and CyberLeninka were used.


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