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PSYCHO-HYGIENE AND PSYCHO-PROPHYLAXIS IN THE ACTIVITIES OF SPECIALISTS PARTICIPATING IN THE ELIMINATION OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS


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Abstract

In the article there is considered the content of the terms of such branches of science as "psycho-hygiene" and "psycho-prophylaxis", the history of the incurrence, tasks, structure, interrelationship and significance in the activity of specialists taking part in the elimination of consequences of radiation accidents and incidents. Psycho-hygiene, presenting a part of general hygiene, is an interdisciplinary field of scientific knowledge referred to general and social hygiene, social and medical psychology, and psychiatry also. It deals with the influence of various environmental factors and labor activity on the mental health of a person, as well as the development and implementation of measures to preserve people's mental health at the public, group and individual levels. The main subject of psycho-hygiene is mentally healthy people, and the most important task is the creation and provision of conditions for the formation of a harmoniously developed personality. In psycho-hygiene, like any other science, there are several areas of activity. These are: fundamental, applied and practical. In the form of the implementation of measures, it is divided into preventive, restorative and curative. Psycho-prophylaxis is a system of state, social, psychological, hygienic and medical measures aimed at ensuring a high level of mental health and preventing the occurrence of mental disorders. Psycho-prophylaxis has such main subject as subclinical, painful manifestations in the psyche of people, in the conditions of occurrence and impact of unfavorable and stressful factors on the person. It develops and implements measures to prevent the occurrence of mental illness, and also facilitates the rehabilitation of people with mental disorders. Considerable attention is paid to the role and importance of psycho-hygiene and psycho-prophylaxis in the activity of emergency rescue teams. In the course of the elimination of consequences of radiation accidents and incidents, in this category there is possible the appearance of psychological trauma with a complex, specific and multifactorial stress effect that underlies a whole spectrum of mental disorders. The implementation of a complex of timely psycho-preventive measures will allow reveal initial signs of mental disadaptation, psychosomatic pathology, emotional burnout and determine effective measures for restoring and preserving mental health in emergency rescue specialists of teams of Federal Medical Biophysical Centre of the the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia.


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