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CONDITIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND PECULIARITIES OF THE COURSE OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN SMELTERS OF TITANIUM ALLOYS


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Abstract

The working conditions, occupational and non-occupational risk factors, prevalence rate and peculiarities of the course of respiratory diseases in smelters of titanium alloys were studied. Working conditions of smelters are estimated as harmful (class of working conditions: 3.3-3.4.) due to factors: heating microclimate, chemicals (chlorine and hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide), industrial dust. A feature of the respirable dust fraction is the high content of titanium oxide particles of the PM10 dimension. There was made an analysis of the health status of workers exposed to industrial dust, depending on the length of service. Diseases of the upper respiratory tract in smelters of titanium alloys were shown to be prevalent, simple catarrhal nasopharyngitis prevails with the subsequent formation of atrophic rhinitis, its prevalence rate among smelters of titanium alloys increases with the experience. The peculiarity of the development of diseases of the upper respiratory tract in smelters of titanium alloys are: deterioration of nasal breathing in workers with experience of from 1 year to 5 years already, in patients with experience from 10 to 15 years the prevalence of catarrhal nasopharyngitis and atrophic rhinitis as its outcome in cases with experience from 15 to 20 years. The bronchial damage in the smelters of titanium alloys develops under the experience more than 5 years. The clinical forms are dominated by the phenomena of catarrhal bronchitis followed by obstruction of the bronchi progressing with the experience, with the formation of irreversible ventilation disorders. With the depletion of antioxidant protection, as a rule, with long duration of the exposure of up to 10 years, aseptic inflammation is formed, which is pronounced clinically as catarrhal endobronchitis. This is a partially reversible pathological process. The described features of the development and course of respiratory diseases in smelters of titanium alloys should be taken into account during periodic medical examinations in order to timely prevent them


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