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SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PLACE OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL METHODS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH


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Abstract

Introduction. The article presents an analysis of the most common methods of biotesting, as well as the search for promising directions for the development of rapid diagnostics. The advantages of alternative biological methods for assessing chemical pollutants in environmental objects to study their effect on living organisms are considered. Material and methods. The paper compares data on the toxicity of various anti-ice materials, ash and slag pharmaceutical preparations and pyrolysis mixture of filtration combustion in experiments using animals and hydrobionts. Ecotoxicological studies were carried out using daphnia, infusorium, luminous bacteria, as well as the culture of mammalian cells. Toxicological - in acute, subacute experiments, including the study of specific immunological indicators, allergenic and skin-irritating effects. Results. For the toxicants studied, inactive concentrations and dilutions are determined for biological models, hazard classes are established. The results of toxicological experiments are presented. Discussion. Attempts to improve the methods of biotesting are carried out in the direction of the creating a battery of bio-tests, shortening the terms of testing and instrumentalizing studies. The analysis of works on various areas of biological research allows us talking about the need to use alternative methods in the preliminary stages of obtaining results. This may be applicable to the establishment of MPC of chemicals in the soil. For each of the indices of harmfulness can be used as a preliminary biotest: the survival of daphnia - for the water-migration index, the presence of Azotobacter - for general health, etc. Conclusion. The selectivity of the responses to toxicants makes it possible to identify target organs in warm-blooded animals, and also to predict the impact on environmental objects through hydrobiont models.


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