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BIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF NON-CARCEROGENIC NEGATIVE IMPACTS ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF CHILDREN IN THE AREA WITH EXPOSURE TO ALUMINUM PRODUCTION EMISSIONS


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Abstract

Introduction. The priority indicator of the influence of chemical factors of the environment on the health of the population of Russia is the pollution of atmospheric air, the composition of which is largely determined by regional features of production. Material and methods. A comparative hygienic assessment of the quality of the atmospheric air of the territory with the placement of aluminum production and the territory without similar sources of emissions was conducted; a chemical-analytical and clinical laboratory examination of 135 children was carried out, with an assessment of the negative effects from the nervous system in the case of aerogenic exposure to aluminum and manganese. Results. In the conditions of the existing quality of atmospheric air in the residential area in the zone of influence of aluminum production which forms an aerogenic exposure of substances (aluminum and manganese), possessing of the unidirectional negative impact on the central nervous system, at the level of 0.0015g/(kg∙day) the share of aluminum is 93.3%, which indicates its primary impact on the population. Children of the observation group 1 showed urine aluminum content by 3.1 times more than in comparison to observation subgroup 2 and 6.9 times in relation to the comparison group (p = 0.0001). The concentration of aluminum as a marker of inhalation exposure is substantiated, and its value more than 0.053 mg/dm3 in urine may indicate an increased risk of neurotoxic exposure. An increased prevalence (1.6-5.5 times) of the negative impact on the CNS in the form of the asthenic autonomous syndrome, as a predictor of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, has been shown to be associated with the aerogenic exposure to aluminum. In children with an elevated aluminum content in urine comparing to the reference level, revealed laboratory abnormalities and indices were proved to be associated with an elevated concentration of aluminum in the urine relative to the children of the comparison group: an increase in the level of neuron-specific enolase in the serum indicating an increase in the activity of damage to the blood-brain barrier; an increase in the glutamic acid content by 1.3 times, characterizing the imbalance of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system; reduction in serum phosphorus, reflecting the antagonistic effect of aluminum, followed by an increase in the level of ionized calcium in the blood. The contribution of aluminum to the biochemical and functional indices deviation from the physiological norm accounted for from 10% to 58%. On the basis of a consistent chain of reliable dependencies, a complex of biomarkers of the asthenic autonomous syndrome and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder associated with an elevated aluminum content in urine, including glutamic acid, neuron-specific enolase, and phosphorus is substantiated.


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