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THE UNACCOUNTED HAZARD OF PROCESSES OF SUBSTANCES TRANSFORMATION IN THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGIES


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Abstract

Introduction. To solve environmental problems in the current economic conditions, the use of achievements in scientific and technological progress acquires the special significance. This primarily concerns the creation, optimization, and improvement of environmentally friendly technologies for purification and neutralization of industrial emissions, new technologies for purification and disinfection of drinking water, development and implementation of environment-improving phytotechnologies and many other environmental and health-improving measures. The present system of environmental and analytical monitoring of the state of environmental objects exposed to various technologies for its recovery, based on the use of physical and chemical or biological factors, requires the control of chemical safety, taking into account the possibility of formation of by-products of transformation with respect to their harmlessness for use. Material and methods. The studies were performed using a chromatography-mass spectrometric system including a gas chromatograph with full electronic control of gas flows and a digital pressure and flow control mode with automatic determination of column parameters, mass spectrometric detector with a quadrupole mass analyzer that provides measurements in the range of mass numbers from 1 to 1050, and a thermal desorber with a gas sample cryo-focusing. Results. Examples of assessing the effectiveness and chemical safety of the application of new environmental protection technologies for cleaning air emissions from a number of enterprises and measures for improving the air environment of enclosed spaces show that their application, on the one hand, is aimed at directly addressing their specific purpose, that is, a significant reduction in the qualitative and quantitative composition of pollutants in production emissions has been established, including an important component in terms of environmental aspects, such as the smell and on the other hand - a negative side effect associated with the formation of toxic and dangerous products of transformation is simultaneously established, even for substances of natural origin, a significant part of which does not have hygienic standards, and consequently their impact on public health remains unaccounted. Discussion. The side effect was often manifested by a change in the direction of deterioration in the chemical composition of the environment object that is physically and chemically affected by the use of the new technology. For an adequate assessment of the quality of the environment and chemical safety of public health, an important condition is to take into account the multicomponent nature of the composition of chemical contaminants and to take into account the transformation products of substances affecting humans under real environmental conditions. Conclusion. Studies focused on identification with a quantitative assessment of air emission components before and after the application of a new environmental technology or a better environmental and health improvement measure allow to monitor environmental objects taking into account the actual content and changes in the group and component composition under the influence of the chemical impact of new technology and to make recommendations for further improvement of the new technology from the point of view of environmental aspects, which, in turn, is aimed at preserving the health of the population.


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