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HYGIENIC AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF FORMING HEALTH OF STUDENTS OF THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY


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Abstract

Introduction. In this article, the role of hygienic and psychophysiological features of the formation of health related to the conditions of education of students of a medical college is considered. Material and methods. For the investigation, a contingent of 300 cases studying at the first, third and fifth courses of the Faculty of Medicine is taken. Collection of materials is carried out on the same contingent of students. We estimated the living conditions, social and marital status, diet, physical activity, the presence of bad habits, chronic and hereditary diseases. A hygienic assessment of the microclimate indices of the study rooms (temperature, relative humidity, and ionization of air) was carried out during the cold and warm periods of the year. With the use of questioning of students, there were received and studied subjective assessments of their students’ health. Assessment of the level of situational anxiety (Spielberg-Khanin test) was conducted at the beginning and end of the semester. Results. The results of the performed studies showed inconsistency with hygienic standards of microclimate parameters in classrooms during cold and warm seasons. The presence of a strong direct link between the air temperature in the classroom and a decrease in the capacity for work in students (r = 0.71, p <0.05) was established. The analysis of the training schedule revealed violations in all courses. The relationship between a weekly training load and a low student performance rating (correlation coefficient r = 0.63, p <0.05) is shown. The analysis of the situational anxiety of the trainees showed their peculiarities in the psychoemotional sphere among students at different courses, the presence of a statistically significant correlation between the anxiety and the training load of students (r = 0.66, p <0.05) was found. The results of the questionnaire survey indicate the impact on the evaluation of students’ health of the conditions of daily life, habits and behavioral patterns, diet, motor activity. Discussion. Hygienic assessment of the factors of the learning environment and the educational process with the help of objective characteristics shows the modern organization of the educational process to be imperfect, and the complex impact of unfavorable conditions of the learning environment and learning activity is a risk factor for increasing the level of their morbidity and worsening the adaptive capabilities of the body of students. The factors of unfavorable influence of the learning environment on the health of students are the parameters of the microclimate of the study rooms, the degree of intensity and nature of the influence of which increases due to various deviations from the established hygienic standards. An important aspect of the rational organization of the educational and educational process of students is the uniform distribution of time by day of the week and throughout the semester. The analysis of the schedule of the training sessions of students of all the courses studied showed a number of violations that were committed while compiling it, which can contribute to the development of fatigue and exhaustion. The effectiveness of student learning activities to a certain extent depends on their mental state. The highest level of anxiety is established among first-year students, which indicates a lack of emotional fitness for new social conditions. Conclusion. A comprehensive approach, including general preventive, information-analytical and medical-preventive measures, taking into account the territorial features of the habitat is needed to optimize the factors of the learning environment and the educational and educational process in the university and reduce their impact on the health of students.


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