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CONTROL ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF CHEMICAL AND MAN-MADE FACTORS


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Abstract

The results of investigations are examined in terms of the development of custom ecological safety controls of the action of chemical and technogenic factors. The work is executed in the Department of Ecological Safety and Natural Management of Kremenchuk Mykhaylo Ostrohradskyi National University (Ukraine). The actuality of the theme is determined by insufficient knowledge of the simultaneous impact of factors of the formation of the ecological danger of different genesis, imperfection and the high cost of existing technical safety management tools. Research is conducted in the Kremenchug socio-economic area - region with the intensive technogenic loading. Where the simultaneous presence of constituents of the danger of different genesis and unfavorable keeping of its sources takes place in relation to the objects of the different setting. On results of monitoring of the states of the ecological danger, its regionally significant components and sources are identified: a waste disposal site, technological ponds of a washing and steaming station, technogenic earthquakes. On the basis of monitoring observations and instrumental measurements, manifestations of an ecological danger are recorded: exceeding the permissible concentrations of harmful substances in aquifers, as a result of which the water in the wells does not meet the standards and is not suitable for consumption; exceeding the permissible levels of vibrations of structural elements in living quarters, cracks and plastering of plaster were also found, temporary deterioration of people’s health was recorded. The system of technical decisions is developed on a management ecological safety. The technology of rendering of the ground deposits by destructors harmless is applied, due to what the sources of ecological danger are liquidated at the washing-steaming station. Experience of the improvement of position descriptions of sources of technogenic earthquakes is grounded, namely artificial change of parameters of environment with the purpose of limitation of area of distribution of waves to the dangerous objects (low-power explosions for the crushing of hard rocks, the construction of near-surface hollow protective structures filled with porous materials, the planting of certain tree species with developed root system). For cleaning of water objects from heavy metals, petroleum products, and fats, the sorbents of increased absorptive capacity, manufactured using an improved method (the use of grinding and mechanical activation processes) from wastes from the agro-industrial complex are used.


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