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Introduction. There was presented data from the field observation of surface waters and wastewater on indices of viral pollution. Material and Methods. To detect the presence of viruses, we examined samples as following: waters of the rivers of the Central European region of Russia; wastewater of the cities of this region; wastewater after treatment at three aeration stations. Eluates were examined for viruses on 2 transplantable RD and Hep-2 cell lines recommended by WHO, as well as on BGM culture. In addition, in the majority of samples, RNA of entero-, noro-, astro-, rotaviruses, hepatitis A viruses (HAV) was detected in RT-PCR and adenovirus DNA in PCR. The output of viruses in cell cultures was carried out in 3 passages, and the determination of RNA and DNA of viruses - in 2 replications. All samples were also examined for coliphages, as indirect indices of viral contamination. Results. It was revealed that coliphages were detected in surface water in 94% of samples, viruses on tissue RD, Hep-2 and BGM cell lines were detected in 35% of samples. The percentage of detection of RNA entero-, rota-, noro-, astroviruses, HAV and adenovirus DNA ranged from 10 to 70%. Discussion. Studies conducted at three aeration stations showed an increase in viral contamination of water in water bodies after the discharge of wastewater into them. Conclusion. Wastewater, both untreated and after biological treatment and disinfection, is contaminated with viruses and when discharged into surface water bodies creates a high risk to public health. In order to preserve the water resources of Russia, modern methods of cleaning and disinfecting wastewater should be modernized with the development of individual schemes taking into account the data of sanitary and virological control of discharged wastewater and the standards specified in the documents of water sanitary legislation.

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