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ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK FOR HEALTH DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN A TERRITORY OF THE ZONE OF EXPOSURE TO PRODUCTION OF METALLURGICAL ALUMINUM


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Abstract

Introduction. The atmospheric air is known to be the most contaminated on territories where industries are highly developed; non-ferrous metallurgy is one of them that make the greatest contribution into atmospheric air contamination. Data and methods. Our research objects were air samples taken on territories where there was located an enterprise producing metallurgic aluminum and our reference samples were taken on a territory where there was no such production; we also examined databases containing data on morbidity of children population, non-carcinogenic risk assessment, number of exposed population, and the results of epidemiologic examination. Results. Quality of the atmospheric air was unsatisfactory as there were concentrations of suspended substances, PM10 solid particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, as well as persistence occurrence of manganese, nickel, and copper compounds resulted from activities of enterprises that produced metallurgic aluminum. All the above-mentioned admixtures cause an unacceptable risk of non-carcinogenic effects emerging in the respiratory organs. A significant contribution into hazard index is made by suspended substances, PM10 and PM2.5 particles. Fine-dispersed fraction having a complicated chemical structure (ferric oxides; aluminum, silicon, nickel, chromium, titanium, and manganese oxides), can aggravate negative impacts on the respiratory organs, exerted by the identified risk factors. The prevalence of respiratory organs diseases among children population living on an exposed territory confirms environmental risks to make increased levels of the overall and primary morbidity rate. We proved a probability of respiratory organs diseases to be depended on concentrations of the examined substances in the atmosphere, including suspended substances and fine-dispersed fractions of PM10 and PM2.5, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, compounds of nickel, manganese, and copper. Discussion. The detected cause-and-effect relations between a risk of increased morbidity with respiratory organs diseases in children and exposure to chemical risk factors, primarily suspended particles, PM10 and PM2.5, are also confirmed by results obtained in a number of research that concentrates on peculiarities of effects produced by the examined chemical factors on respiratory organs diseases in children. Conclusions. Children living on a territory exposed to the exposure exerted by an enterprise that produces metallurgic aluminum have a chronic aerogenic risk for respiratory organs diseases; this risk becomes apparent due to the elevated morbidity rate of respiratory organs diseases. This risk is proved to be related to impacts exerted by suspended substances and fine-dispersed fractions of PM10 and PM2.5, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, manganese, nickel, and copper.


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