ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK FOR HEALTH DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN A TERRITORY OF THE ZONE OF EXPOSURE TO PRODUCTION OF METALLURGICAL ALUMINUM
Introduction. The atmospheric air is known to be the most contaminated on territories where industries are highly developed; non-ferrous metallurgy is one of them that make the greatest contribution into atmospheric air contamination. Data and methods. Our research objects were air samples taken on territories where there was located an enterprise producing metallurgic aluminum and our reference samples were taken on a territory where there was no such production; we also examined databases containing data on morbidity of children population, non-carcinogenic risk assessment, number of exposed population, and the results of epidemiologic examination. Results. Quality of the atmospheric air was unsatisfactory as there were concentrations of suspended substances, PM10 solid particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, as well as persistence occurrence of manganese, nickel, and copper compounds resulted from activities of enterprises that produced metallurgic aluminum. All the above-mentioned admixtures cause an unacceptable risk of non-carcinogenic effects emerging in the respiratory organs. A significant contribution into hazard index is made by suspended substances, PM10 and PM2.5 particles. Fine-dispersed fraction having a complicated chemical structure (ferric oxides; aluminum, silicon, nickel, chromium, titanium, and manganese oxides), can aggravate negative impacts on the respiratory organs, exerted by the identified risk factors. The prevalence of respiratory organs diseases among children population living on an exposed territory confirms environmental risks to make increased levels of the overall and primary morbidity rate. We proved a probability of respiratory organs diseases to be depended on concentrations of the examined substances in the atmosphere, including suspended substances and fine-dispersed fractions of PM10 and PM2.5, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, compounds of nickel, manganese, and copper. Discussion. The detected cause-and-effect relations between a risk of increased morbidity with respiratory organs diseases in children and exposure to chemical risk factors, primarily suspended particles, PM10 and PM2.5, are also confirmed by results obtained in a number of research that concentrates on peculiarities of effects produced by the examined chemical factors on respiratory organs diseases in children. Conclusions. Children living on a territory exposed to the exposure exerted by an enterprise that produces metallurgic aluminum have a chronic aerogenic risk for respiratory organs diseases; this risk becomes apparent due to the elevated morbidity rate of respiratory organs diseases. This risk is proved to be related to impacts exerted by suspended substances and fine-dispersed fractions of PM10 and PM2.5, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, manganese, nickel, and copper.
About the authorsKoldibekova Yu.V.
Zemlyanova Marina A.
Heroux M.E., Braubach M., Korol N., et all. The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC. Gigiena I Sanitariia. 2013; 6: pp. 9-14. PMID: 24624813.
Niu Y, Chen R., Kan H. Air pollution, disease burden, and health economic loss in china. Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology. 2017; 1017: 233-42. PMID: 29177965
The Economy of Russia. Figures and facts. Part 8 Metallurgy [Ekonomika Rossii, tsifry i fakty. Chast’ 8 Metallurgiya]. 2015. Available at: https://utmagazine.ru/posts/10561-ekonomika-rossii-cifry-i-fakty-chast-8-metallurgiya (accessed: 24.08.2018) (in Russian).
Vekovshinina S.A., Kleyn S.V., Zhdanova-Zaplesvichko I.G., Chetverkina K.V. the quality of environment and risk to health of the population residing under the exposure to emissions from colored metallurgy enterprises and wood processing industry. Gigiena i Sanitaria. 2018; 97 (1): 16-20. DOI: 10.18821/0016-9900-2018-97-1-16-20 (in Russian).
WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: Summary of risk assessment. WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH/06.02, 2005. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/69477 (accessed: 20.05.2018).
Air quality and health. Newsletter. The world health organization, 2016. [Kachestvo atmosfernogo vozduha i zdorov’e. Informacionnyj bjulleten’]. Available at: http://www.whogis.com/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/ru/ (accessed: 24.05.2018) (in Russian)
Health effects of particulate matter. Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia. WHO Regional Office for Europe UN City, Copenhagen, 2013: 20.
Esposito S., Galeone C., Lelii M., Longhi B. et all. Impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases in children with recurrent wheezing or asthma. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2014; 14: 130. PMID: 25098250
Fan X.J., Yang C., Zhang L., Fan Q., et all. Asthma symptoms among Chinese children: the role of ventilation and PM10 exposure at school and home. The International Journal Of Tuberculosis And Lung Disease: The Official Journal Of The International Union Against Tuberculosis And Lung Disease. 2017; 21 (11): 1187-93. PMID: 29037301
Bezuglaya E. Yu. The air of cities and its changes [Vozduh gorodov i ego izmenenija]. St. Petersburg, Asterion, 2008 (in Russian).
Yorifuji T., Kashima S., Doi H. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013). The Science of The Total Environment. 2016; 551-2: 66-72. PMID: 26874762
Melgar-Paniagua E.M., Vega-Rangel E., Del Razo L.M., Lucho-Constantino C.A., et all. Distributed lag associations between respiratory illnesses and mortality with suspended particle concentration in Tula, a highly polluted industrial region in Central Mexico. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2013; 86 (3): 321-32. PMID: 22484788
Kurenkova G.V. Dust as a harmful factor of the production environment. [Pyl’ kak vrednyj faktor proizvodstvennoj sredy]. Irkutsk: IGMU, 2015: 88 (in Russian)
Galeev K. A., Khakimova R. F. The Relationship between the concentrations of chemicals in the atmospheric air and the prevalence of allergic diseases in children. Gigiena i sanitarija. 2002; 4: 23-4. (in Russian)
Novikov S.M., Ivanenko A.V., Volkova I.F et all. Assessment of Moscow population health risk from exposure to ambient air suspended matter. Gigiena i sanitarija. 2009; 6: 41-3 (in Russian).
Pope C. A., Dockery D. W. Acute health effects of Pm 10 pollution on symptomatic and non-symptomatic children. American Review Respiratory Diseases. 1992; 145(5): 1123-28.
Callén M.S., López J.M., Mastral A.M. Apportionment of the airborne PM10 in Spain. Episodes of potential negative impact for human health. Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM. 2012; 14 (4): 1211-20. PMID: 22398666.
Rakhmanin Y.A., Novikov S.М., Аvаliani S.L., et all. Actual problems of environmental factors risk assessment on human health and ways to improve it. Health Risk Analysis. 2015; 2: 4-11. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2015.2.01.eng
Mora C.F., Kwan A.Kh., Sphericity, shape factor, and convexity measurement of coarse aggregate for concrete using digital image processing. Cement and Concrete Research. 2000; 30: 351-8.
Weibel E.R. Fractal geometry: a design principle for living organisms. American Journal of Physiology. 1991. 261:361-9.
Glants S. Medical and Biological Statistics [Mediko-biologicheskaya statistika]. Moscow: Practika, 1998: 459 (in Russian).
Fletcher R., Fletcher S., Vagner E. Clinical Epidemiology: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine [Klinicheskaya epidemiologiya: Osnovy dokazatel’noy meditsiny]. Moscow: Media Sfera; 1998: 352 (in Russian).
Health risk assessment of air pollution. General principles. WHO Regional Office for Europe UN City. Copenhagen, 2016.
Kuzmin S.V., Privalova L.I., Katsnelson B.A., et all. Risk assessment and environmental and epidemiological studies as interrelated tools of sociohygienic monitoring at the local and regional levels. Gigiena i sanitarija. 2004; 5: 62 (in Russian).
Shamsijarov N.N., Galliev K.A, Hakimova R.F., et all. Quantitative assessment of the impact of air pollution on morbidity from acute respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract. Gigiena i sanitarija. 2002; 4:11-3. (in Russian)
Prusakova A.V., Prusakov V.M. Epidemiologic Risk Assessment of Children’s Morbidity from Environmental Exposure. Jekologija cheloveka. 2016; 9: 46-56. (in Russian)
Prosviryakova I.A., Shevchuk L.M. Hygienic assessment of PM 10 and PM 2.5 contents in the atmosphere and population health risk in zones infleunced by emissions from stationary sources located at industrial enterprises. Health Risk Analysis. 2018; 2: 14-22. DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2018.2.02.eng
Petrov S.B., Onychina E.N. Ecological and epidemiological assessment of the influence of suspended solids in atmospheric air on the prevalence of respiratory diseases in urban children’s populations. Zdorov’je nasilinia I sreda obitania. 2011; 6: 17-20. (in Russian).
Buka I., Koranteng S., Osornio-Vargas A.R. The effects of air pollution on the health of children. Paediatr. Child Health. 2006; 11(8); 513-6.
- Refbacks are not listed
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.