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FINE-DISPERSE PARTICLES (PM AND PM) IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR OF A LARGE INDUSTRIAL REGION: ISSUES RELATED TO MONITORING AND STANDARDIZATION OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS


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Abstract

Introduction. For the Russian Federation, the problem of accounting PM and PM in industrial emissions, monitoring these particles in ambient air and assessing their impact on public health is relevant. State control of PM and PM in the atmosphere is provided, but not sufficiently applied for health risk management tasks. Material and methods. Mass concentrations of dust emissions from enterprises and the content of PM and PM in the emissions were determined by a gravimetric method and a method of laser analysis. Results. The presence of fine particles in the emissions of various industries was confirmed: in mechanical engineering - up to 13% of PM, up to 40% of PM; in ferrous metallurgy - up to 79% of PM, up to 84% of PM10; in nonferrous metallurgy - up to 43% of PM, up to 88% of PM; in the mining industry - up to 21% of PM5, up to 49% of PM; in the processing of mountain waste - up to 57% PM2.5, up to 59% PM. Discussion. The impact of concentrations of PM and PM in the atmosphere of enterprises zones often exceeds the established hygienic standards. The zones of emissions influence of fine particles usually overlap the zones of emissions influence of dust. Control of air pollution without its dispersion leads to an underestimation of the health risk. Conclusion. The effective air quality management in Russia needs the revision of methods for determining the dispersion of emissions; improvement of the methodological and/or regulatory basis for PM2.5 and PM10 accounting; inclusion of PM2.5 and PM10 in government programs of air quality monitoring; accumulation of data on the dispersion of emissions and PM and PM concentrations in the atmosphere; expanding the practice of health risk assessment when exposed to PM and PM.


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