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IMPACT OF HYPERBARIC STRESS ON LIPID COMPOSITION OF BLOOD PLASMA AND PHYSIOLOGICAL-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ERYTHROCYTES IN DIVERS: PREVENTION OF VIOLATIONS BY VEGETABLE POLYPHENOLS


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Abstract

There was studied lipid composition of blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes, physiological characteristics of erythrocytes in divers, exposed to extreme factors of the hyperbaric environment in the process of the occupational activity. There was observed a group of 10 male divers from 25 to 30 years of age, whose work is associated with the systematic implementation of submarine dives at medium and large depths (20-60 m) using compressed air for breathing. The influence of hyperbaric stress was shown to be accompanied by the change in a ratio of fatty acids in the total lipids of blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes. In total lipids of blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes the number of all kinds of saturated fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid), the monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid) was increased and an amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family (arachidonic acid) and n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was reduced, which caused a change in physicochemical properties of erythrocytes, permeability, and lability. The increase in the amount of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membranes correlates with its elevation in blood plasma. There was an increase in the volume of erythrocytes by 5% and diameter by 13%, due to the inclusion of cholesterol in the membrane. It was recorded a shift in the threshold of hemolysis start at 0.50 ± 0.02% NaCl and its completion at 0.40 ± 0.01% NaCI. Preventive administration of the Kalifen food supplement for two months before the dive would help to remove metabolic disorders caused by the hyperbaric factors.


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