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HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF NUTRITION IN STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS


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Abstract

Introduction. Rational nutrition is one of the most important factors of a healthy lifestyle, ensuring the preservation and strengthening of the health of the population. However, in the government document “Fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of healthy nutrition of the population for the period until 2020” it is noted that despite positive trends in nutrition of the population, the mortality from chronic diseases, the development of which is largely related to the alimentary factor, remains much higher than in most European countries. It is especially important to ensure the rational nutrition of young people, which determines the future development of Russian society. Given the urgency of the problem, we carried out a comprehensive hygienic study aimed at studying the nutrition of students in higher education. Materials and methods. 1820 students from 4 Universities of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan took part in the experiment. The study of the daily diet of students was conducted using the method of 24-hour reproduction. Two computer programs aimed at monitoring of the daily diet of students have been developed, tested and registered. The chemical composition and caloric content of the consumed products was estimated. Results. As a result of the study, the amount of protein in the daily rations of students was found out to increase (for girls - by 8.2%, for boys - by 23.5%). Above the norm, there is also the fat content in food products of young men (by 10.2%). The students of both genders have been diagnosed with carbohydrate deficiency (8.5% below the norm for girls, 10.4% for boys). The daily calorific value of the students was normal. Evaluation of the content of macronutrients in the diet of students revealed excessive intake of sodium (32.7% above the norm for girls and 90.9% for boys), phosphorus (25.1% higher for girls and 65.0 % - for boys). Both girls and boys have a significant calcium deficit: 44.5% and 41.1% lower than the normative indices, respectively. When studying the content of microelements in diets, the girls showed a significant iron deficiency (21.7% below the norm). Deficiency of vitamin C (for girls below the norm by 23.2%, in boys - by 15.2%) was identified. The intake of vitamin B2 is somewhat reduced for female students (by 11.2%). Conclusion. The analysis of the students’ diet revealed a discrepancy with the norms of physiological needs for a number of nutrients. A conceptual medical-pedagogical model aimed at the formation of value orientations towards the healthy lifestyle of students (oriented, among other things, improve the quality of nutrition) has been developed and tested. The analysis of the effectiveness of the medical-pedagogical model is carried out using neural network information technologies that assess the impact of the regime and quality of nutrition on students’ health status.


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