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Introduction. The Ural part of the Republic of Bashkortostan is distinguished by a variety of geomorphological, geological and geographical factors, economic specialization and level of economic development. However, the degree of impact of the total anthropogenic load on the environmental state of the entire territory is classified as “strong”. The influence of living environment features on the elemental status of the population, including children, negative trends in morbidity rates necessitate biomonitoring, based on the study of the composition of the human biological media. Material and methods. Using the atomic absorption method 491 samples of children’s hair have been analyzed. Quantitative assessment of the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, As, Pb, Cd accumulation in the hair in children aged 0 - 7 years old, born and lived in the industrial, industrial-agricultural and predominantly agricultural areas of the eastern part of Bashkiria has been done. Results. In the body of children, the accumulation of toxic metals originates from food and inhaled polluted air coming from industrial plants. Proof of inhalation exposure is the relationship between the decrease in the level of toxic elements in the emissions of town-forming enterprises and children’s bio-media over a ten-year observation period. The adaptability of children’s body to the macro-and trace elements presented in the residential zone has been revealed. Conclusions. The metal concentration in the hair of children is characterized by a very large variability, at which an inverse relationship between the accumulation of biochemically necessary and potentially dangerous elements is noted. Toxic elements penetrate through the intrauterine barrier; as a result, the child is born with elevated concentrations of heavy metals, a significant decrease of which occurs by the end of the first year of life.

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