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PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE UFA CITY


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Abstract

Introduction. One of the most important tasks of Medicine at present is to determine the level of physical health of a person, based on an assessment of physical development. Given the urgency of the problem, we conduct a comprehensive hygienic study, the purpose of which was to assess the physical development, as well as the conditions and lifestyle of university students, with the subsequent development of a system of measures aimed at maintaining and strengthening the health of students. Material and methods. The study included 1,820 students from 4 universities of the Ufa city, Republic of Bashkortostan. At the first stage, there was performed an assessment of students’ physical development using certified devices. In the second stage of the research, an anonymous questionnaire was organized, aimed at studying the living conditions and lifestyle of the students. In the third stage, a conceptual model was developed for determining health risk groups depending on the physical development, conditions, and lifestyle of students using neural network technologies, as well as a system of measures aimed at preserving and strengthening the health of students. Results. While assessing the physical development of students, it turned out that only in 74.7% of students the body mass index is within the normal range. One in seven students has an insufficient body weight (15.1%), and one out of ten students is overweight (10.2%). The average dynamometry (grip strength) among young women is 25.6 ± 0.6 kg, among young men - 45.5 ± 0.8 kg. The ranking using percentiles showed that the range of grip strength indices from Р25 to Р75 among young women is 22.0-28.5 kg, among young men - 40.0-52.0 kg. The balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic influences (according to Kerdo index) is typical for 58.6% of students, one out of four students is prone to sympathicotonia (28.4%). The main “time absorber” for modern student youth has been determined: the average time spent on social networks during weekdays was 4.8 ± 0.24 hours. A significant deficit of night sleep among students has been identified. The average duration of students’ night sleep on weekdays was only 6.4 ± 0.27 hours. Only one-sixth students went in for sports (17.5%). Nutrition has changed for the worse after entering a university in 42.8% of respondents. Based on the study, standards for the physical development of Bashkortostan Republic students were developed and approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Using the developed conceptual model for identifying risk groups for student health based on neural network tools, in 14.9% of students sympathicotonia were determined to be considered to be at high risk for health. The system of measures aimed at optimizing the learning environment and formation of positive hygienic behavior of students has been justified, developed and implemented. Conclusion. Negative changes in the physical development of young people were identified: a tendency toward asthenization in young people, the decrease (over the years of the study at a University) in the number of students with a body mass index within normal limits, and decrease in strength indices (compared to generations of students from the early 2000s). The results obtained indicate to the need for work aimed at maintaining and strengthening the health of students.


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