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MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS OF NEUTROPHILS AGAINST BACTERIAL INFECTIONS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION IN PATHOGENESIS OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES


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Abstract

Infection is one of the leading causes of the mortality and morbidity. Neutrophils protect the body against pathogenic microorganisms. However, the contribution of neutrophils in the development of the infectious process was underestimated. In addition to phagocytosis, neutrophils can mediate extracellular degranulation, release of extracellular chromatin, nuclear protein and serine proteases and form neutrophil extracellular traps NETs. NETs can capture pathogens, cause endothelial dysfunction and pro-inflammatory immune responses. The phenomenon of NETs is a relatively new form of programmed cell death (NETosis). NETosis has a high potential for the further study of the pathogenesis of inflammation and the search for effective methods of treating infections. This review focuses on modern data on the basic protective strategies of neutrophils against bacterial infections and their contribution to the pathogenesis of proinflammatory responses. Approaches to pharmacological modulation of different antimicrobial mechanisms of neutrophils are discussed.


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