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ROBOTIZATION IN HEALTHCARE: LEGAL PERSPECTIVE


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Abstract

Introduction. The development and application of medical robotics, medical robotic devices, automated technical systems in the field of health care are already quite successful and have great potential. Such large-scale technological changes inevitably actualize the social roles of law, that should properly settle, protect and guide the development of nascent social relations, which until recently occurred everywhere in a kind of regulatory vacuum. Material and methods. The methodological basis of the study included general scientific methods (dialectical, logical, systemic, historical, sociological, statistical) and private scientific methods of legal science (formal-legal, historical-legal and comparative-legal). The empirical basis of the study was Russian and foreign regulatory legal acts and law enforcement practice, as well as legal doctrine. Results. Based on the comparative legal study a legal definition of the medical robots and various options for their classification, among them a special one, including surgical robots, robots used in restorative medicine, rehabilitation of immobilized patients, nursing and care robots, have been developed. Cyborgs are biological organisms containing mechanical or electronic components are allocated to a special group. Legal mechanisms for ensuring security and cybersecurity in this area are highlighted. The necessity of more flexible legal regulation of personal data concerning the health of citizens and medical confidentiality under new technological conditions is justified. Discussion. Legal regulation of the medical robots should be of a staged nature. General norms of sectoral significance can be formulated at later stages. At the moment, it is more rational to direct efforts to determine the legal regime of certain types of created artificial intelligence systems in the healthcare sector. Conclusion. The legal concept of robotics in healthcare should take a significant place in a wide range of scientific studies of the development of new technologies for the benefit, not to the detriment, of a person.


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