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THE ROLE OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES IN THE PATHOLOGY OF DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT


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Abstract

The upper airway tract is the first line of defense of the body against bacterial, viral, fungus factors, that enter the body during inspiration. The protective function of the upper airway tract is a highly integrated and complementary system, that is provided by mucociliary clearance (mechanical removal of inhaled foreign substances and microorganisms with mucus), epithelial cells (an important source of antimicrobial substances), natural killers, dendritic cells, neutrophils and macrophages. An important role in innate immunity is played by the production of antimicrobial peptides by epithelial cells in the upper parts of the respiratory tract. Antimicrobial peptides (defensins α and β and cathelicidins) are key effectors of innate immunity, which provide an urgent response of the macroorganism to infection. Studies show that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a dual role in protecting against infection by acting directly on microorganisms and on macroorganism cells. The review presents current knowledge of the processes occurring in the niches of the upper respiratory tract, and proposed a theoretical model for the generalization and illustration of these mechanisms.


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