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Bone is an active tissue that undergoes continuous physiological remodeling and capable of restoring its defects. However, in cases to restore the integrity and functioning of bones, it is necessary to use implants and fastening devices. One of the important and unsolved problems of modern orthopedics is the development of local inflammatory reactions in response to the implantation of foreign material, while the immune system is one of the important regulators of the processes of tolerance and rejection of bioimplants. The development and use of new materials for orthopedics is creating a new generation of bone bioimplants that are highly biocompatible and capable replace newbone tissue. Such promising materials include magnesium alloys that, in contrast to titanium analogs, have similar mechanical properties compared to bone tissue and are capable to biodegradation in the body biological media. However, an important and unresolved phenomenon is the interaction of magnesium alloys biocorrosion with the immune system of the recipient. In this regard, it is important to understand the immunological mechanisms involved in the regulation of reparative and implant rejection processes. The literature search is conducted on the Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, RINS and other databases.

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