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A cytological examination of uterine cavity material has proven to be the effective method of detecting and clarifying the diagnosis of cancer and non-tumor endometrial diseases. However, sometimes there are difficulties in interpreting the results in a traditional (classical) cytological examination, due to high level of inadequate samples: the presence of mucus, a large number of blood elements, structures of poorly visible cells in the wrong preparation of the smear. At present, the method of liquid cytology, based on the technology of preparation of standard thin-layer cytological preparations from liquid cell suspension, is increasingly developed and widespread. These slides, if necessary, can be used for morphometry, cytochemical, immunocytochemical studies etc. It is also possible to prepare cell blocks from this material, and to obtain information about the histological structure if small pieces of tissue are presented in cytological material, moreover, to use these blocks for immunohistochemical reactions. Material from the uterine cavity may contain tumor cells from ovarian, tubal or other non- endometrial carcinoma, and it is necessary to obtain information about their origin, to verify the morphological diagnosis and to determine the management and treatment of patients, as a lot of problems concerning ovarian and endometrial cancer remains unclear. Examination of aspirates and scrapes from the uterine cavity using advanced molecular techniques, together with existing examination methods, can help to form risk groups for uterine, tubal, ovarian and even peritoneal tumors. The review of literature contains comparative characteristics of different methods and their combinations, which allow improving diagnostics of non-tumor lesions and endometrial tumors.

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