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ROLE OF LABORATORY METHODS IN INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTICS OF ACUTE MESENTERIAL ISCHEMIA


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Abstract

The aim of the review: to present literature data on the role of laboratory methods in the complex diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia. The main provisions. To search for scientific publications, we used the PubMed database, the RSCI, the Google Scholar search engine, as well as cited references. Articles relevant to the purpose of the review were selected for the period from 1999 to 2019 in the following terms: “acute mesenteric ischemia”, “pathogenesis”, “diagnosis”, “biomarkers”. Inclusion criteria were limited to acute arterial mesenteric ischemia. Acute mesenteric ischemia is an emergency condition caused by a sudden violation of the blood flow through the mesenteric vessels, which rapidly progresses to a heart attack of the intestinal wall and is accompanied by high mortality. Four main mechanisms of OMI are distinguished: embolism from the left parts of the heart or aorta, thrombosis of arteries or veins of the intestine, non-occlusive acute mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), due to vascular spasm. In this case, destructive disorders occur in the intestinal wall, starting from the mucous membrane to the serous, which leads to bacterial translocation and the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Early bowel revascularization is a key factor in reducing complications and mortality associated with it. However, in the initial stages of the disease has no specific signs, which complicate its diagnosis. The only way to detect mesenteric blood flow disorders is MSCT with angiography, and with non-occlusive lesions, mesenteric angiography, which in normal clinical practice is not always possible. Conclusion. It can be assumed that the use of laboratory methods will expand the range of diagnostic measures and will make it possible to conduct timely treatment aimed at restoring the mesenteric blood flow and improve the prognosis in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia.


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