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MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT, OPPORTUNITIES FOR DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO DRUGS


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Abstract

Drug allergy includes a wide range of immunological hypersensibility responses with various pathogenesis mechanisms and clinical manifestations. This is a serious type of adverse responses to drugs, which not only affects the quality of life of patients, complicates the treatment of the underlying disease, but in some cases is a potentially life-threatening pathological condition. Given the polymorphic symptoms of drug allergy, its diagnosis is often very difficult. The diagnosis is based on a thorough clinical examination of patients, in some cases, a special allergological examination may be required using in vitro and in vivo tests. An effective strategy for treating drug allergy is to prevent or block the action of a causally important drug. In the presence of alternative preparations, drugs that may cause allergies in a particular patient should be replaced with drugs with a fundamentally different chemical structure. When choosing alternative medications, possible cross-reactivity that occurs among drugs should be considered. Additional therapy in the management of patients with drug hypersensibility responses may include systemic and local corticosteroids, systemic antihistamines. In the case of anaphylaxis, the starting drug of choice is adrenaline. If in the presence of drug allergy to a certain preparation, it is not possible to find an adequate alternative and it is not possible to cancel this type of treatment, then the possibility of carrying out specific immunotherapy with this drug to induce tolerance to a causative drug may be considered.


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