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Vaccination and hygiene are currently the main strategies for helping limit the spread and impact of acute respiratory infections. However, the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe consequences require the search for additional measures for reducing the morbidity and mortality from coronavirus infection. One of these additional prevention strategies is micronutrient status optimization, which is safe and cost-effective. Vitamins and minerals are important components of the immune response. The effect of micronutrients such as vitamin D, ascorbic acid, zinc, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the immune response has been studied for several decades. As a result, significant shreds of evidence have been accumulated regarding the importance of provision immuno-nutrients on the adequate immune response. This implies in both contexts: the prevention of infectious diseases and their course. At the same time, the problem of insufficient supply with various micronutrients is gaining global significance, affecting every country and every socio-economic class of people. This review contains data on the state of micronutrient status of the global and Russian population, discussion of the role of key immunonutrients in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections, and results of recent meta-analyses. It will also provide recommendations of experts in the field of nutrition, developed in 2020 with regard to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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