Hygiene and Sanitation №3 2008

Onishchenko G. G.

Incidence of nosocomial infections in the Russian Federation 

In the past 5 years, the incidence rates of nosocomial infections (NI) have been steady-state at a relatively low level of 0.8-0.9 per 1,000 patients. However, this apparent well-being is attributable to a significant underestimate of the cases of NI, an attempt to refer these infections to as intrauterine ones the proportion of which has increased by several times for this period. Nosological entities, such as urinary tract infections, postoperative complications, pneumonias, pyoseptic infections in parturients, are being underestimated now as before. To eliminate serious shortcomings in the prevention of NI, the Russian Consumer Inspectorate has proposed a number of measures: further improvement of NI epidemiological surveillance; introduction of a system for monitoring NI pathogens and their antibiotic resistance; staffing therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions with hospital epidemiologists; a decrease in the number of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures; a reduction in the length of hospital stay; blood quarantinization; expansion of the network of centralized sterilization departments and strengthening of control over their work; general introduction of novel highly effective disinfectants and equipment; implementation of measures to protect medical staff; and fortification of the material-and-technical basis of a therapeutic-and-prophylactic institution.
The major tasks of combating infectious diseases for 2007-2010 are as follows: the further development of a standard methodological basis in the prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases, which are to revise the current technical regulations and to prepare new ones, sanitary regulations of activities in the implementation of organizational, prophylactic measures against some infectious diseases; to enhance the efficiency of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, by extensively applying new information telecommunication technologies, diagnostic systems based on proteomic, postgenomic, and nanotechnologies, that of monitoring the environment and herd immunity.