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A CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SNOW ON AREAS EXPOSED TO SPACE-ROCKET ACTIVITIES POLLUTION (ALTAI REPUBLIC)


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Abstract

There are two areas in the Altai Republic where second rocket stages of launch vehicles fall down. They use unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) and nitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4) as a part of fuel. The snow possesses of the high sorbtion capability, low chemical and biological activity, and is the most informative object for the investigation of chemical effects on the environment by vehicle launchings. The article represents results of the investigation of the snow pollution carried out over the period of from 2011 to 2015. The chemical analysis of snow from the areas where second rocket stages of launch vehicles fell back to the Earth testify samples fail to contain UDMH and its most dangerous transformation product - NDMA. Published data of the atmospheric pollution modeling at launching space vehicles also admit the low probability of the surface contamination by falling second rocket stages of launching vehicles. The average concentration of nitrate ion, ammonium ion, pH level meets Environmental standards. The chemical composition of atmospheric fallout in the neighboring territory is mostly determined by operational features and proximity of anthropogenic objects. The amount of contaminants in atmospheric fallout declines with the distance from emission sources. Dust load to exploration territory does not exceed a background value for Siberian region being hundred times lower then such values for industrial and residential areas. Analysis of atmospheric flow movements and the wind rose in the winter in the Altai Mountains shows on the likely entry into the territory precipitation contaminated by acid-forming emissions of metallurgical enterprises of East Kazakhstan.


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