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Introduction. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can create risks to human health when they enter the body by oral route when used in packaging materials, as promising agrochemicals and pesticides. The aim of the study. Evaluation of the subacute oral toxicity of SWCNT in rats. Material and methods. In the 92-days of the experiment, the SWCNTs were administered to rats along with drinking water at doses of 0 (control); 0.01; 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) in the groups 1-5, respectively. Hematological indices of blood, apoptosis of hepatocytes, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in blood plasma and their production by cells of the spleen ex vivo, the content of the main and transient components of the intestinal microbiocenosis in the cecum were studied. There were determined hematological blood counts, hepatocyte apoptosis, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in blood plasma and their production by spleen cells ex vivo, content in the cecum of the main and transient components of the intestinal microbiocenosis. Results. At the SWCNT dose of 0.01 mg/kg BW there was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and basophils, an increase in the number of lymphocytes, and a decrease in the number and volume of platelets. At a dose of 0.1 mg/kg bw there was noted a decrease in the number of cells in the early stage of apoptosis and the total number of cells in apoptosis, as well as a significant decrease in the levels of cytokines IL-10, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, chemokine MIP-3a, TGF-β isoform 1; at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg IL-12p70, and TGF-β isoforms 1 and 3. TGF- β2 level was significantly elevated in group 5. The suppressive effect was noted for SWCNTs on the mold flora in intestinal contents at all doses of nanomaterial used, whereas the number of yeasts increased at 1 mg/kg BW. The immunization of rats with ovalbumin had a clear modulating effect on the immunotropic effects of SWCNTs administered at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg BW in a 28-days experiment. Discussion. The mechanisms of the observed changes development are likely to be associated with both systemic anti-inflammatory effects and with a decrease in the effect of SWCNT on the permeability of the intestinal barrier to protein antigens and microbial toxins. Conclusion. SWCNTs exhibit a number of effects in relation to the studied indices that do not demonstrate a monotonic dependence on the dose of nanomaterial, which, apparently, is related to the processes of aggregation of the SWCNT.

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