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ACUTE CHEMICAL POISONINGS AS AN INDEX OF THE SYSTEM OF SOCIO-HYGIENIC MONITORING IN THE ROSTOV REGION


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Abstract

The problem of acute chemical poisonings is currently important for almost all regions of Russia including the Rostov region. Acute chemical pathology leads to the deterioration of the quantitative and qualitative indices of population health that entails the loss of the ability to work and determines the high level of the premature mortality rate; has a negative impact on the social climate and socio-economic development of the region. The purpose of the study was to investigate the epidemiological and medico-social aspects of the morbidity of the population of the Rostov region in case of such forms of traumatism, as the acute poisoning of chemical etiology. In the work, there was used a regional database of toxicological monitoring for the period of 2008-2015, including information about 29750 cases of acute chemical poisonings. There was executed the comprehensive study using the methods of epidemiological analysis of the frequency, structure, long-term dynamics, extrapolative forecasting, and spatial characteristics in order to identify territorial differences. The average annual rate of acute chemical poisonings in the Rostov region is 86.20 per 100,000 (о/оооо), mortality rates and lethality respectively, amount of 8.32 о/оооо and 9.65 %. The average annual rate in cities (106.43 о/оооо) was higher than in rural areas (54.14 о/оооо) by 1.97 times. In the Rostov region there were favorable trends in the rate of acute chemical poisonings, both mortality and lethality rates, for both the urban and rural population; according to the results of extrapolative mid-term forecasting, one can expect annual negative gain rates for these indices. The results of the comparative analysis identified the «risk territory» in terms of the rate of acute poisonings of chemical etiology and the mortality rate. There were identified the leading causes (alcohol and its surrogates, drugs) and risk factors of acute chemical poisonings of the population in the cities of the Rostov region, which are necessary to take in account for the optimization of organizational and managerial decisions for of prevention of this type of traumatism.


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