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ANTIMICROBIAL-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN FOOD AS A HYGIENIC PROBLEM


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Abstract

The analysis of scientific data on the occurrence of the antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms from food sources is adduced. A presentation on the molecular mechanisms of its formation under the influence of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) with an antimicrobial effect, taking into account the peculiarities of their use in the animal husbandry, is given. Ways of the contamination of food with VMPs, the potential of their residues in terms of direct and indirect risks for human health, the current situation with the contamination of food products, the principles of hygienic rationing and control are described. The role of sub-inhibitory doses of antibiotics in the formation of the antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is described, and the importance of tetracyclines as the most important agents of activation of horizontal transfer of resistance in the environment is emphasized. The factors in food chain objects contributing to the realization of different types of horizontal gene transfer are highlighted, including examples of studies implemented by the author laboratory in a specific food industry establishment. The new data on the negative consequences of physical and chemical effects of non-antibiotic nature, sublethal for microflora in food, as well as products of microbial synthesis as inhibitory technological means, manifested by the enhancement of the gene transfer and the development of acquired antimicrobial resistance in food strains, is presented. The importance of extraneous (zoonotic pathogens, intestinal commensal flora representatives, HAIs agents) and the microflora of food products especially used (biotechnological, probiotic microorganisms, GMM) as vectors for transfer of resistant microorganisms to the human body have been disclosed. The modern data of international organizations and literary sources are summarized in terms of effective practical measures to counter the formation and occurrence of the resistance, including promising innovations in agriculture aimed at alternative technologies to antimicrobials for the growing and fattening of productive animals.


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