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ACTIVITIES OF THE LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT AND ZEMSTVO’S MEDICINE AT FIGHTING EPIDEMIC DISEASES IN THE UFA PROVINCE AT THE END OF THE XIX - BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURIES


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Abstract

The article deals with the complex of measures implemented to combat epidemic diseases in the Ufa province by local government and zemstvo’s medicine; there were studied the dynamics of the most widespread epidemic diseases and the effectiveness of measures taken by these bodies for the treatment and prevention of epidemics in the Ufa province in the late XIX and early XX centuries. As a result of the study of the stated problem, the authors concluded that the sanitary measures carried out by the zemstvo during this period could not significantly affect the dynamics of the morbidity rate. On the one hand, there have been noted undoubted successes in the implementation of measures for the prevention and treatment of a number of epidemic infectious diseases and in the organization of sanitary and statistic research. At the initiative of the provincial doctors’ congress, there was established the Ufa Medical and Statistic Department, which became the first sanitary body in the province; there was organized the sanitary and educational work, characterized by the publication of popular medical brochures and other publications that were specially written out and distributed through public libraries. The organization of hydrogeological research and water treatment activities was also among the specific measures of the zemstvos aimed at combating epidemic diseases was. However in the conditions of the capitalist development of the economy of the region, accompanied by urbanization, there was noted a decline in the standard of living of the rural and urban population suffering from difficult living conditions and semi-starvation. This environment became the outbreak of various kinds of epidemic infectious diseases and the reason for high mortality rate, especially among children. The population of the province suffered from an inadequate provision of medical personnel, financial resources of the zemstvo were restricted for even the most necessary anti-epidemic measures, which were not systematic and were not fulfilled. At the same time, both the ignorance and low level of domestic culture of the local population were a serious obstacle in the organization of qualified medical care


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