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INFORMATIVITY OF THE DIFFERENTIATED ACCOUNT OF SIZES OF SOLID PARTICLES IN THE AIR ENVIRONMENT FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF DUST PROFESSIONS AND THE POPULATION (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE DATA)


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Abstract

Harmful effects of the increased dust content in the air on working sites and the population are one of the current problems of the current time and demand realization of more effective measures of the prevention of risks to health. Professional pathology of respiratory organs of employees of dust professions still remains the main in the structure of occupational diseases. The research conducted by us at one of large iron and steel plant of the country have shown the high professional risk to the health of workers exposed to aerosols (17.19%oo). 75% of all cases of professional pathology fell to the share of occupational diseases of respiratory organs. Data of the analysis of the morbidity with temporary disability records testified about very high (WiΔ> 3) or high (WiΔ = 2.0-3.0) direct epidemiological risk of exacerbations of chronic diseases of the lungs and pneumonia noted in shops with the primary influence of aerosols of condensation. Whereas in production with prevalence in the soaring dust of aerosols of disintegration WiΔ = 1.0-2.0 recently the increasing relevance is acquired by fine particles, including - the nanoparticles differing in special physical and chemical characteristics and impact on biological structures including the human body. For the assessment of the potential danger of the aerosol particles to health working and the population there isn’t enough knowledge of dispersing composition of the dust soaring in air, and it is necessary to know the inhaled fraction, i.e. a mass fraction of all weighed particles in air which are inhaled through a nose or a mouth and also -the major area of their sedimentation in airways of the person. In our country, there are performed numerous epidemiological investigations devoted to the studying of the influence of the weighed particles (PM2.5 and PM10) on the population that has formed the basis for the development of domestic hygienic standards and control methods. The recommendations focused on the separate accounting of mass of the soaring and inhaled particles for more effective protection of the health of workers of dust professions are proved.


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