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AFTEREFFECTS OF THE IMPACT OF THE RADIATION EXPOSURE ON THE TERRITORY AND THE POPULATION OF THE ALTAI KRAI


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Abstract

Introduction. The paper presents the assessment of the aftereffects of the radiation exposure on the territory and the population of the Altai Krai following nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The peculiarity of the appearance of radiation doses of the population was that the overwhelming part of the dose formed by short-lived radionuclides. The main carrier of the negative impact of the nuclear weapon testing is the population of the Altai Krai resided in territories adjacent to test site during the period 1949-1963, as well as their descendants. The radiation situation on the territory of the region currently has no restrictions for residence and economic activities. Material and methods. The assessment of the impact of the effects of nuclear testing requires the reconstruction of the effective radiation doses of the population. For this purpose, Methodical Guidance (MG 2.6.1.2574-2010) “Determination of total (accumulated) effective radiation doses of the subjects from the population exposed to radiation as a result of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site” was used. The calculations were made for 6.5 thousand citizens of the Russian Federation. Results. To assess the remote consequences of the impact of the Semipalatinsk Test Site upon the health of the population living in the nearby areas, a regional segment of the National Radiation and Epidemiological Register across the Altai Territory was formed. Based on the results of compulsory special medical surveillance, the health of the contingents of the regional segment of the register was assessed. In 2017, the rate of common incidence increased significantly, and the rate of firstly revealed incidence was practically unchanged. Conclusion. The most significant pathologies include diseases of the circulatory system, musculoskeletal system, digestive organs, endocrine system, nervous system and sensory organs, respiratory organs, genitourinary system and malignant neoplasms. The rate of the common mortality rate of the Register’s contingents has considerably decreased. The most significant causes of death are the diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases.


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