ROBOTS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, AUGMENTED AND VIRTUAL REALITY: ETHICAL, LEGAL AND HYGIENIC ISSUES
The digital revolution poses new challenges for hygienists. From hygienic positions, the essence of digitalization of economy and society, and also ethical problems and projects of legal regulation of robotics, systems of artificial intelligence (AI), augmented and virtual reality (AR-VR) are considered. The aim of the work is the analysis of digitalization from the standpoint of information hygiene, as well as the legal regulation of these new technologies for their hygienic regulation. The range of views of the luminaries of Natural Sciences and Medicine on ethical and philosophical issues of the society, labor, and hygiene is given. Of the 23 Asilomar principles of safe, productive, and moral development of AI systems there are selected 7 hygienically significant ones, that can serve as the scientific basis for the hygienic assessment of cyber-physical systems. The issues of the legal regulation of robotics and AI on the example of the UNESCO draft and the European Parliament resolution, as well as draft laws of the United Kingdom and the United States, are considered. The proposal of Russian specialists on the category of high-risk robots and the presumption of the danger of conscious interaction with AI is noted. The terminology on robots and co-robots in the fields of welfare, medicine, and healthcare is presented. The proposal is described to form a friendly behavior of the robot to implement the ethical norms of robotics for the benefit of man. The systems of AR-VR used in education, industry, architecture, health care, medical Sciences, and entertainment are mentioned, as well as risk factors and symptoms of motion sickness as a form of their manifestation are considered. The basic theory is that of sensory conflict and then activation of the optic-vestibular-spinal system; one talks about the "disease of virtual reality". Possible disorders of the human body functions when using AR-VR devices and medical contraindications, as well as health and safety requirements are systematized. The bases of information hygiene can serve as a tool to preserve the health of workers and the population in the digital age. Robots and AI systems are concluded to require hygienic assessment. Special attention should be paid to the AR-VR systems, which create specific health risks, especially for vulnerable groups. The methods and criteria for evaluating cyber-physical systems on the base of information hygiene and specialized hygiene regulations are urgently needed.
About the authorsDenisov E.I.
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