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FEATURES OF NATIONAL POLICY IN APPROACHES TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SAFETY OF RADIO FREQUENCIES RADIATION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES


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Abstract

The article contains the analysis of modern approaches to determining the limits of the electromagnetic field of radio frequencies. The international discussion about the safe limits of electromagnetic radiation has been going on for half a century. In the 21st century, the national policy of electromagnetic safety is determined by the socio-economic priorities of countries and national legal principles of evidence of harm to health to a greater extent, than scientific data. There are three main approaches to determining the limits of electromagnetic fields. The Anglo-Saxon approach is based on the principle of passive regulation, i.e. using the recommended values of the permissible level of the electromagnetic field. The Soviet-Russian approach is based on establishing the maximum permissible level of the electromagnetic field, which guarantees no harm to present and future generations. The term of the maximum permissible level is historically associated with the concept of the priority of the nervous system responses to the influence of the electromagnetic factor. The state assumes responsibility for the scientific justification of the limit levels and implements the control functions for their observance, which allows excluding any harm to health. The third approach is based on the precautionary principle, the concept of which was first introduced in German law. It is aimed at preventing harm, in the absence of unambiguous, reliable scientific data and, in fact, it is a socially-oriented approach that takes into account social consensus in the context of the development of new technologies. Respectively, this approach implies strict maximum permissible levels (technically achievable), as well as a system of formal restrictions on placement of the electromagnetic field sources in the “susceptible” territories. Separately from the above approaches, a method of managing the safety of the electromagnetic environment in China has been formed: since 2015, electromagnetism has been fully attributed to environmental factors and is controlled by the Ministry of environmental protection. China has abandoned the hygienic regulation of the anthropogenic electromagnetic field, and the system, for establishing and monitoring the electromagnetic environment indices, combines elements of all three mentioned above approaches.


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