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OCCUPATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN THE IRON MINING IN THE KOLA ARCTIC


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Abstract

Introduction. Working conditions at mining enterprises, including iron ore mining, combined with the climatic conditions of the Arctic, create an increased risk of occupational diseases (OD) among miners. The aim of the study was to investigate the risks, circumstances of the development, structure, and prevalence of OD in miners engaged in the extraction of iron ore in the Kola Polar Region. Material and methods. The data of social and hygienic monitoring in the section “Working conditions and occupational morbidity” of the population of the Murmansk region in 2007-2017 were studied. Results. The development of the OD in this category of miners was established to be mainly associated with the whole-body vibration (42.5%) and the severity of labor (33.2%) due to the imperfection of workplaces (66.4%). In the structure of the OD, the largest share belongs to injuries, poisoning and some other consequences of external causes (46.9%), while diseases of the musculoskeletal system occupy the second place (27.0%). The most common nosological form of OD was vibration disease (38.5%). The annual number of workers diagnosed with OD varied over a wide range from 3 to 29 people. In 2007-2015, there was a tendency towards an increase in occupational morbidity rates, and in 2016-2017, there was a sharp decrease to 7.39 cases per 10,000 workers, which cannot be explained by improved working conditions and health promoting activities. Conclusion. To preserve the health of miners engaged in the extraction of iron ore in the Kola Arctic, it is necessary, first of all, to reduce the levels of whole-body vibration and severity of labor processes in combination with the introduction of medical methods to increase the body’s resistance to harmful industrial and climatic factors.


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