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HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF INTERVENTIONS FOR REDUCING EXCESSIVE ACOUSTIC IMPACT ON RESIDENTIAL AREAS


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Abstract

Introduction. The most important external sources of excessive noise levels on the territories of residential development are transportation sources (road, rail, aviation). The aim of the present study is the hygienic assessment of the acoustic situation in the areas in the zone of influence of traffic flows and currently used measures to reduce the excess acoustic impact on residential premises. Material and methods. The studies were carried out on the territories along the roads and Railways, with different intensity of traffic flows in accordance with GOST 23337-2014 Noise. Methods of noise measurement in residential areas and in the premises of residential and public buildings, MUK 4.3.2194-07 “Methods of noise measurement in residential areas and in the premises of residential and public buildings.” Experimental studies of materials used for the construction of acoustic screens were carried out. Here were investigated window units were used to reduce external noise in the house. Sound pressure levels in octave bands (dB) and sound levels (dBA) in the sound-measuring reverberation chamber were measured in accordance with GOST 27296-2012. Results. Exceeding the permissible equivalent noise levels at a distance from 2 to 7.5 m from the roadway of vehicles in the daytime reaches 25-32 dBA. Noise from railway transport at a distance of 25 m from the source in terms of the equivalent sound level for freight transport is of 77 dBA, maximum - 83 dBA; for cargo transport, Sapsan, Lastochka, Allegro identical data were obtained; for passenger trains, the equivalent sound level accounted for 71 dBA, for electric trains - 66-69 dBA. Exceeding the standards for octave frequencies were most often observed at low frequencies from 31.5 to 500 Hz. The air noise insulation index (dB) is higher for the concrete and wood chips material, i.e. the material with higher density. The study of the parameters of the window blocks allowed us to establish all the studied samples to provide a reduction in the equivalent noise level by more than 20 dBA, but differ in the spectral characteristics of noise damping. Conclusion. Traffic flows create excessive noise levels in urban and rural settlements and impair the quality of life of the population. The effectiveness of existing measures aimed to mitigating noise in the source of generation by both road and rail transport has been exhausted. Acoustic screens in high-rise buildings have very limited efficiency. An option to reduce the adverse impact of external noise on public health is the construction of buildings protected from noise. Placement of buildings along the linear objects of road and rail transport should be provided at the stage of planning of quarters, the construction of such buildings should be carried out on special projects. When designing and building, special attention should be paid to the window units used and the quality of their installation. Window blocks should be selected on the basis of frequency characteristics of noise attenuation.


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