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Introduction. The working conditions of livestock workers do not exclude the negative impact of the harmful biological factor of the work environment. Against the background of impaired immune homeostasis, the presence of saprophytic microorganisms in the working area air can contribute to the development of inflammatory pathology. The dynamic monitoring of the state of the immune system is needed due to the choice of tests in the conditions of health examinations of livestock workers. Material and methods. Working conditions, the state of health and the immune system of various livestock workers have been studied; analysis of the microbiological contamination of the work environment air has been conducted; patient groups according to the level of microbiological risk have been formed. Results. The hygienic studies conducted indicate industrial noise; aerosols in the form of a dust of plant and animal origin on the basis of grain; certain hazardous chemicals; the microclimate of production facilities, as well as the burden of labor to predominate in the livestock enterprises. In the work environment air, increased content of opportunistic microorganisms (pathogens of opportunistic infections) has been detected. Different modal abnormalities of immune status indices in response to microbial load have been revealed. The relationship between the quantitative characteristic of the total microbial load and the state of the immune system among workers in various livestock production has been established. Conclusion. The biological factor is a risk factor for the formation of different levels of both systemic and local disorders of the immune regulation. The potential risk for failure of compensatory-adaptive and adaptive mechanisms increases in proportion to the degree of total microbiological stress. Under conditions of increased microbiological risk, the dynamic control of workers’ immune system becomes important, which requires substantiation and development of adequate methodological approaches to the choice and use of diagnostic procedures and tests for mass health check-ups of livestock workers.

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