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A CYTOLOGICAL STUDY OF IMPRINT SMEARS (TOUCH PREPARATION CYTOLOGY) TO EVALUATE THE TOXICITY OF METAL-CONTAINING NANOPARTICLES IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS


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Abstract

Introduction. Touch preparation cytology is a well-known technique widely used in clinical practice. It can be also applied for an express assessment of cyto-morphological effects of metal-containing nanoparticles in experimental animals. Material and methods. We’ve studied 144 imprint smears (of the liver, kidneys, lungs, tracheobronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes) taken from 52 rats, weighed 280-300 g, aged 3.5 months. This was done following a subchronic intraperitoneal administration of TiO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 nanoparticles, in a range of doses, and a subacute (5-times) inhalational exposure to 1 mg/m3 NiO NPs. Leishman stain was used. Cytological markers were studied at х100/х1000 magnification, using a Carl Zeiss Primo Star microscope, with a USCMOS camera for visualization. The count was done for every 200 cells of lung, liver and kidney specimens and for every 100 cells of lymph node tissue. The differences between the group means (in case of quantitative results) were analyzed using a Student’s t-test. The differences between the group means were considered statistically significant if the probability of those differences being accidental didn’t exceed 5% (р < 0,05). Results. We report the principal results obtained in a cytological study of imprint smears (touch preparations) of rat organs following the exposure to metal-containing nanoparticles. The main types of cellular responses were determined. Degenerative and dystrophic changes were observed in touch preparations of the liver, kidneys, and lungs following administration of nanoparticles in a range of doses and by various routes of exposure. Hyperergic inflammatory responses were seen upon the exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticles. A local cellular immune response was observed as an increase of macrophage percentage in imprint smears of some organs. Conclusion. The use of touch preparation cytology together with histological examination of tissue specimens expand opportunities for a more relevant morphological and quantitative analysis when studying the toxic effects of metal-containing nanoparticles.


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