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AB0 blood group antigens were discovered over a century ago; however, it is still important to study their role in development of various pathological conditions. Today it is known that antigenic determinants of this blood group are present not only on erythrocyte membrane but also on other cells and tissues: platelets, gastrointestinal epithelium and salivary glands, respiratory system cells. In the last decade, a large number of studies have appeared to reveal the relationship between a specific disease and blood group type, meta-analyses have been published. Previously, the authors have studied the metabolic status, cell composition and coagulation profile of clinically healthy individuals for more than on 180,000 donations, that allowed to identify group-specific features for each blood group. This review presents generalized data on the association of such pathological conditions as coronary heart disease, thromboembolic complications, tumors of various localizations, inflammatory and destructive oral diseases, psychiatric and some infectious diseases with the presence or absence of antigenic determinants A and B. Carriers of blood group 0 (I) are generally more resistant to diseases, with the exception of H.pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases. Carriers of «antigenic» blood groups A (II), B (III), AB (IV) are more susceptible to development of infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases. The presented data demonstrate clinical significance of the definition of group typing not only for selection of blood and its components during transfusion and transplantation, but also for diagnostics, determination of risk group and tactics for treatment patients with different nosologies.

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