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The review of information in special literature (according to databases “MedLine”, and Russian Science Citation Index) given the chance in a new way to present some questions of prevention of children’s disability is presented in article; introduction of results of such research to the practice will allow to influence at deeper pathogenetic level processes of a child disability child and also to improve the organizational moments of scheduled maintenance on this direction. Prevention of children’s disability is considered as the system of measures for health protection of mother and the child throughout the childhood. The priority directions of prevention taking into account the reasons for the formation of disability and its structure on the caused disease are designated. Modern technologies of a decrease in genetic freight in population from a position of prevention of hereditary and congenital pathologies, mental diseases and disorders of behavior are stated. Data on the increasing role of an intestinal microbiota are provided in the development and prevention of a number of the diseases influencing the formation of disability of children. From preventive positions, the problem of the fight against an antibiotiс resistance is considered. A number of scientific research is devoted to noninfectious pathology which gains the increasing value not only from persons of young age but also from teenagers. Relevant data on an obesity role are provided in the formation of violations of health which can become the reason for an invalidation of the child. The position of social hygienists expresses the need of creation of a system of hygienic and medico-psychological health and safety of children for the digital environment which has to become a barrier to the development of deviant behavior at the Internet. The dependence on the Internet can lead to an invalidation. In researches influence of carrying out preventive programs at different stages of development of the child on the decrease in the level of the general disability at children is shown. Creation of a system of early prevention of disability in children and a support of the families which are bringing up disabled children and children with limited opportunities of health are among the main priorities of the state social policy of the Russian Federation.

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